Scientific Tree invites all the Geneticists, Biotechnologists and Molecular Biologists across the nations to submit their abstracts before the deadline ends. Kindly submit your abstract. There are altogether 19 sessions on Genetics and Genetic Engineering . Choose your calling and please submit your abstract relevant to the conference or session
Genetic engineering, also called genetic modification or genetic manipulation is the direct manipulation of an organism's genes using biotechnology. Genetic engineering has been applied in numerous fields including research, medicine, industrial biotechnology and agriculture. In research GMOs are used to study gene function and expression through loss of function, gain of function, tracking and expression experiments. By knocking out genes responsible for certain conditions it is possible to create animal model organisms of human diseases. As well as producing hormones, vaccines and other drugs genetic engineering has the potential to cure genetic diseases through gene therapy. This session discusses more about the latest developments in its research fields and application of Genetic Engineering to various aspects of life.
Molecular Biotechnology deals in areas of interest which include the stability and expression of cloned gene products, cell transformation, gene cloning systems and the production of recombinant proteins, protein purification and analysis, transgenic species, developmental biology, mutation analysis, the applications of DNA fingerprinting, RNA interference, and PCR technology, microarray technology, proteomics, mass spectrometry, bioinformatics, plant molecular biology, microbial genetics, gene probes and the diagnosis of disease, pharmaceuticals, therapeutic agents, vaccines, gene targeting, gene therapy, stem cell technology and tissue engineering, antisense technology, protein engineering and enzyme technology, monoclonal antibodies, glycobiology and glycomics, and agricultural biotechnology. Genetic engineering techniques have matured greatly in recent years. Use of well-defined GEM and a cohort of GER models enables us to accelerate the rate at which we dissect elemental biological mechanisms of health and disease, and develop new, rationally designed drugs to target a host of previously incurable conditions. This session discusses about the latest in molecular biotechnology and genetic engineering techniques.
A genetic disorder is a condition that is caused by an abnormality in an individual's DNA. Abnormalities can be as small as a single-base mutation in just one gene, or they can involve the addition or subtraction of entire chromosomes. A genetic condition where someone has either too many or two few chromosomes are called aneuploidy. There are two common types of aneuploidy: monosomy and trisomy. People with monosomy are missing a chromosome. So, for a particular chromosome, only one is present instead of two. People with trisomy have an extra copy of one of their chromosomes. So for instance trisomy 18 means that there are 3 copies of chromosome 18. Each chromosome has many genes. The features of each type of aneuploidy are unique, and they are connected to the specific genes on the affected chromosomes. For some genes, it is important to have two copies. With too many or too few copies of a gene, the cell has trouble making the proper amount of the gene product. This session discusses more about human genetics and genetic disorders.
Eugenics, euthenics, euphenics deals with issues that decides, based on values, which characteristics should be part of society and which are not. Epigenetics, the study of how environmental factors and lifestyle choices influence our genes has flourished to become one of the most groundbreaking areas of science over the past decade. We know that stress, toxins, socio-economic status, bullying, racism and the lifestyles of our parents and grandparents can all turn on or off certain genes in our DNA. The field is radically changing how we think about nature and nurture – giving it an impact far beyond the lab. Today, we generally are educated about the dangers of eugenics. In focusing on the environment as a cause for many unwanted conditions, epigenetics has the potential to advance social justice. Social values often decide how we implement science, rather than the other way round. This session discusses more about eugenics, euthenics and epigenetics.
Gene Therapy is treating a disease by replacing, manipulating or supplementing a gene. Changing an individual’s DNA sequence to fix a non-functional gene; altering a person’s genotype in the area where it is malfunctioning. Gene Therapy also include normal gene is inserted at random into the genome so that functioning protein is made. Homologous recombination used to swap the normal gene for the abnormal gene. Abnormal gene is repaired through site directed mutagenesis. Change the regulation of the gene. Change the amount of protein, random insertion, putting a functioning gene into a DNA vector. Administer vector into human cells through defunct viruses which evolved into efficient ways of inserting DNA into genome. Virus with vector administrated to specific cell types depending on disease. Functional gene is randomly inserted into human’s genome and then translated to functional protein. Genetic Counselors should be able to counsel patients and family members on what genetics means to them and explain in detail about the genetic disorders, and explain the possible risks.
Evolutionary genetics deals with the studies relating to the integration of genetics. This field attempts to study the evolution in terms of changes in gene and genotype frequencies within populations. As such four evolutionary forces namely mutation, random genetic drift, natural selection, and gene flow act within and among populations causing micro-evolutionary changes; and these processes are sufficient to account for macro-evolutionary patterns. That is given very long periods of time, the micro-evolutionary forces will give rise to the macro-evolutionary patterns that characterize the higher taxonomic groups. Thus the central challenge of Evolutionary Genetics is to describe how the evolutionary forces shape the patterns of biodiversity observed in nature. This session discusses the evolution of genome structure, the genetic basis of speciation and adaptation, and genetic change in response to selection within populations.
Cancer is a genetic disease. Cancer is caused by certain changes to genes that control the way our cells function; especially how they grow and divide. Certain gene changes can cause cells to evade normal growth controls and become cancer. Genetic changes that promote cancer can be inherited from our parents if the changes are present in germ cells, which are the reproductive cells of the body namely eggs and sperm. Cancer-causing genetic changes can also be acquired during one's lifetime, as the result of errors that occur as cells divide or from exposure to carcinogenic substances that damage DNA, such as certain chemicals in tobacco smoke, and radiation, such as ultraviolet rays from the sun. Genetic changes that occur after conception are called somatic or acquired changes. This session discusses more about cancer genetics and it's after effects.
The ultimate goal of plant genetics and plant genomics is to improve our ability to identify the genotypes with optimal agronomic traits in order to improve yield. Advances in our understanding of gene function and the availability of genomic maps along with a better understanding of genetic variation will alter the way that plant breeders identify genes to manipulate the underlying traits. Understanding genomic data is more useful in understanding the basis of complex traits in plants. These types of approaches will have significant impact on how artificial selection is performed and the pace at which phenotypes are manipulated. The combination of genome sequences and the many methods for probing gene function are providing a wealth of information about the molecular basis of plant phenotypes. This session discusses the new approaches to in plant genomics and molecular basis of crop improvement.
Animal genetics and breeding provide new insights into scientific discoveries to age-old livestock production problems to help producers and consumers. The field of animal breeding and genetics research is more exciting than ever before, with projects such as bovine gene mapping and DNA sequencing. Using state of the art tools and facilities, the researchers are able to contribute to the field of animal biotechnology on a worldwide level. Animal breeding involves the selective breeding of domestic animals with the intention to improve desirable and heritable qualities in the next generation. Animal breeders should improve the desirable qualities of animals with the need for genetic diversity and long-term sustainability of the breeding program. This session will discuss more about the scientific concepts in genetics that are applied in animal breeding and as well as how to apply the models and computational methods used in animal breeding.
Microbial genomes encompass all chromosomal and extra chromosomal genetic material. Microbial genomes are widely variable and reflect the enormous diversity of bacteria, archaea and lower eukaryotes. Bacterial genomes usually consist of a single circular chromosome, but species with more than one chromosome linear chromosomes and combinations of linear and circular chromosomes also exist. Plasmids can be transferred via horizontal DNA transfer from on cell of the same generation to another, mediating the rapid evolution of many different organisms. The study of microbial genomes helps us to better understand the broader biology of bacteria, and how their genetic composition contributes to their tangible characteristics and to understand the importance of evolution of bacteria. Bacteria often evolve not just through small, single nucleotide level changes but through quantum evolutionary events. This session discusses more about microbial genomics.
Immunology deals with the understanding of the immune system and how it functions to protect us from pathogens, like bacteria and viruses, while at the same time it takes into consideration the harmless or beneficial microbes in our environment. Immungenetics is the branch of medical genetics that explores the relationship between the immune system and genetics. Identification of genes defining the immune defects may identify new target genes for therapeutic approaches. Autoimmune diseases, such as type 1 diabetes are complex genetic traits which result from defects in the immune system. Alternatively, genetic variations can also help to define the immunological pathway leading to disease. This session discusses more about immunology and immunogenetics and the advancements made in its research and other developments.
Stem Cell Research & Therapy deal with the study of translational research in stem cell therapies. Stem cells have enormous potential for alleviating suffering for many diseases which currently have no effective therapy. The field has progressed to the clinic and it is important that this pathway is underpinned by excellent science and rigorous standards of clinical research. This session discusses more about translational aspects of stem cell therapy spanning preclinical studies, clinical research into stem cell therapeutics and regenerative therapies, including animal models and clinical trials. This session also discusses specifically the development for cutting edge research which plays significant role in bringing together the critical information to synergize stem cell science with stem cell therapies.
Tissue engineering deals with the practice of combining scaffolds, cells, and biologically active molecules into functional tissues. The goal of tissue engineering is to assemble functional constructs that restore, maintain, or improve damaged tissues or whole organs including artificial skin and cartilage. Tissue Engineering is a broad field that includes regenerative medicine wherein the body uses its own systems, sometimes with help foreign biological material to recreate cells and rebuild tissues and organs. Tissue Engineering hopes to focus on cures instead of treatments for complex, often chronic, diseases. A biobank is a type of biorepository that stores biological samples of humans for use in research. Biobanks is an important resource in medical research which supports many types of contemporary research relating to genomics and personalized medicine.
The field of regenerative medicine encompasses numerous strategies, including the use of materials and de novo generated cells as well as various combinations thereof to take the place of missing tissue effectively replacing it both structurally and functionally, or to contribute to tissue healing. The body's innate healing response may also be leveraged to promote regeneration although adult humans possess limited regenerative capacity in comparison with lower vertebrates. This session discusses preclinical and early clinical work to alter the physiological environment of the patient by the introduction of materials, living cells, or growth factors either to replace lost tissue or to enhance the body's innate healing and repair mechanisms will then be reviewed. Also the strategies for improving the structural sophistication of implantable grafts and effectively using recently developed cell sources will also be discussed in this session of regenerative medicine and development.
The original sequencing methodology known as Sanger chemistry uses specifically labeled nucleotides to read through a DNA template during DNA synthesis. This sequencing technology requires a specific primer to start the read at a specific location along the DNA template, and record the different labels for each nucleotide within the sequence. In order to sequence longer sections of DNA, a new approach called shotgun sequencing was developed during Human Genome Project (HGP). In this approach, genomic DNA is enzymatically or mechanically broken down into smaller fragments and cloned into sequencing vectors in which cloned DNA fragments can be sequenced individually. The complete sequence of a long DNA fragment can be eventually generated by these methods by alignment and reassembly of sequence fragments based on partial sequence overlaps. Among the five commercially available platforms, the Roche/454 FLX, the Illumina/Solexa Genome Analyzer, and the Applied Biosystems (ABI) SOLiD Analyzer are currently dominating the market. The other two platforms, the Polonator G.007 and the Helicos HeliScope have just recently been introduced and are not widely used. Additional platforms from other manufacturers are likely to become available within the next few years and bring new and exciting technologies, faster sequencing speed, and a more affordable price. Methodologies used by each of the current available NGS systems are discussed here in this session.
Molecular docking is an invaluable tool in the field of molecular biology, computational structural biology, computer-aided drug designing, and pharmacogenomics. Molecular docking has become an important common component of the drug discovery toolbox, and its relative low-cost implications and perceived simplicity of use has made it so popular among the academicians. Several considerations that can greatly improve the success and enrichment of true bioactive hit compounds are commonly overlooked at the initial stages of a molecular docking study. This session will discuss all of these considerations including protonation states, active site waters, separating actives from decoys, consensus docking and molecular mechanics generalized-Born/surface area (MM-GBSA) rescoring, and incorporation of pharmacophoric constraints, and inherent difficulties of a structure-based drug design study.
Functional genomics is a field of molecular biology that attempts to make use of the vast wealth of data given by genomic and genome sequencing projects and RNA sequencing to describe gene and protein functions and interactions. Functional genomics focuses on the dynamic aspects such as gene transcription, translation, regulation of gene expression and protein–protein interactions. The goal of functional genomics is to understand the function of larger numbers of genes or proteins eventually all components of a genome. This session discusses the functional genomics and its studies of natural genetic variation over time such as an organism's development or space such as its body regions, as well as functional disruptions such as mutations.
Translational medicine, an emerging discipline on the frontier of basic science and medical practice, has the potential to enhance the speed and efficiency of the drug development process through the utilization of pharmacogenetics. Pharmacogenetics is the study of genetic causes of individual variations in drug response which deals with the simultaneous impact of multiple mutations in the genome that may determine the patient’s response to drug therapy.? In order to accelerate the development of new compounds, novel approaches in drug development are required. This session discusses more about the use of translational medicine and pharmacogenetics in the fields of cardiovascular, pulmonary, oncological, bone diseases and many more other diseases.
Forensic genetics derives from a late offshoot of the big tree resulting from the conjunction between legal medicine and criminalistics. Its historical evolution shows substantial theoretical and technological developments and has, meanwhile, turned this discipline into a broad and independent scientific area for which it is becoming more and more difficult to identify its most remote ancestors. The evolution of modern societies substantially broadened the forensic framework by introducing new forms of resolution of disputes, allowing space for prevention, and regulating more restrictively the prosecution investigations. Methods and techniques like "Touch DNA" or "Contact Trace DNA", forensic DNA typing, Y-STR analysis, DNA fingerprinting, Polygeographic investigations and many more techniques, latest developments in the field of forensic genetics would be discussed in this session.